Canadian Occupational Projection System (COPS)


Chained (2012) Dollars specifies that the values are in 2012 dollars and they are adjusted for inflation.

Canadian Occupational Projection System (COPS) is aset of economic models used to assess and project future labour market conditions on an industrial and occupational basis.

Demographic is a statistic characterizing human populations (or segments of human populations broken down by age or sex etc.)

Death (in-service mortality) refers to a withdrawal from the labour market due to mortality. 

Economic growth is the change in real gross domestic product (GDP).

Employment refers to the number of persons 15 years of age and over who had a job during a given year.

Employment rate is the number of persons employed expressed as a percentage of the population 15 years of age and over. The employment rate for a particular group (age, sex, marital status, etc.) is the number employed in that group expressed as a percentage of the population for that group.

Excess Demand occurs when there are more job openings than job seekers.

Expansion Demand refers to the annual creation or destruction of jobs as a result of economic growth.

Gross domestic product (GDP) is the market value of final goods and services produced in an economy in a given year.

High-skilled occupations include i) occupations usually requiring university education, ii) college education or apprenticeship training and iii) management occupations (which do not always require postsecondary education)

Inflation is the percentage change in prices from one period to the next.

Job openings are the number of new jobs due to changing economic activity and positions becoming vacant because of death, retirement, occupational mobility, and temporary labour force withdrawal.

Labour force is the number of persons 15 years of age and over that were working or are looking for work in a given year. In other words, it refers to those who were employed or unemployed. If a person is not working and is not actively looking for work then that person is not included in the labour force.

Labour mobility is the ability of workers to move between geographical locations, among industries and different occupational skills.

Labour supply refers to the number of individuals offering their services to employers, including new entrants to the labour market as well as those with or without a job that are actively looking for work.

Low-skilled occupations are a set of occupations that usually require secondary school or occupation-specific training or only on-the-job training.

National graduate survey - NGS is a Statistics Canada survey in which postsecondary graduates are surveyed two and five years after graduation about the link between their education characteristics and their labour market status.

National Occupational Classification - NOC refers to a standard that classifies and describes the occupations in the Canadian economy. For more information visit:

NFLMS stands for Normalized Future Labour Market Situation. It’s an indicator of excess demand (excess supply if negative) normalized to the base year employment.

NGS -See national graduate survey - NGS (enquête nationale auprès des diplômés - END).

NOC - See National Occupational Classification - NOC (Classification nationale des professions – CNP).

North American Industry Classification System NAICS is an industry classification system developed by the statistical agencies of Canada, Mexico and the United States. For more information visit the Standard Industry Classification site from Statistics Canada:

Occupational group refers to a collection of similar occupations found in various industries or organizations. An occupational group consists of a 2- or 3-digit NOC codes is a combined grouping of two or more occupations of which are at the 4-digit NOC code level.

(Net) Occupational Mobility captures individuals currently in the labour force moving between occupations, takes two forms:

Participation rate is the number of labour force participants expressed as a percentage of the population 15 years of age and over. The participation rate for a particular group (age, sex, marital status, etc.) is the number of labour force participants in that group expressed as a percentage of the population for that group.

Population isthe number of persons of working age, 15 years of age and over.

Post-secondary is a continuance of some level of education after completion of high school.

Profession is an occupation that requires specialized skills and advanced training.

Projections refer to a numerically-based view of the future economy built upon past data, computer models, expert knowledge and consultations.

Real Gross Domestic Product (Real GDP) is value of all final goods and services produced in a geographical region, adjusted for inflation.  

Reference week is the week of the month in which the Labour Force Survey is conducted by Statistics Canada. It is the week that contains the 15th day of the month. Source: Statistics Canada: Guide to the Labour Force Survey - 2008

Replacement Demandrefers to the job openings resulting from retirements, emigration and in-job mortality.

Retirement is a complete and permanent withdrawal from the labour market, excluding migration and those workers that die while holding a job.

Retirement rate is the ratio of retirements to workers of a given occupation, occupational group, industry and/or other.

School Leavers are students coming out of Canada's education system, with educational attainment ranging from an incomplete high school to a PhD

Skill refers to the learned capacity or ability, to perform a task or job.

Skill level is primarily based on the nature of education and training required to work in an occupation. This criterion also reflects the experience required for entry and the complexity of the responsibilities involved in the work, compared with other occupations.

Skill requirements arespecific abilities, aptitudes and/or knowledge that are prerequisites needed to obtain employment in an occupational group.

Skill Type refers to a skill type represents the type of work performed and may be associated with a function (e.g. management, clerical or sales), a field (e.g. science, health, education or culture) or an industry (primary industry or manufacturing).

Source population areindividuals aged 15 years and over

Trade/vocational is a level of education that may or may not require the completion of high school and may involve on-the-job training as part of the course requirements.

Tradesperson is a skilled manual worker in a particular trade or craft.

Trend refers to continues tendency or behaviour of a set of observations.

Unemployment refers to the number of persons 15 years and over who were available but without work and actively looked for it in any given year. It is the difference between the labour force and employment.

Unemployment rate is the number of unemployed persons expressed as a percentage of the labour force.

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